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372

Oral Biology Preparation (Dr. Try Ky)

 

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1)

An undifferentiated cell of a multicellular organism which is capable of giving rise to indefinitely more cells of the same type, and from which certain other kinds of cell arise by differentiation.?

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2)

Yamanaka’s factors were chosen because they were known to be involved in the maintenance of pluripotency, which is the capability to generate all other cell types of the body.?

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3)

Growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term?

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4)

Why transcription factors is the most import key to generate iPSc, cell reprogramming?

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5)

If the ICM, inner cell mass, is removed from its normal embryonic environment and cultured under appropriate conditions, the ICM-derived cells can ——————————————- indefinitely and still maintain the developmental potential to form any cell type of the body?

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6)

What is the biggest conflict of using embryonic stem cells?

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7)

The inner cell mass cells have the potential to generate any cell type of the body, but after implantation, they are quickly depleted as they differentiate to other cell types with more limited developmental potential. ?

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8)

Stem cell hierarchy from top to bottom?

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9)

One strategy to accomplish this goal is nuclear reprogramming, a technique that involves experimentally inducing a stable change in the nucleus of a mature cell that can then be maintained and replicated as the cell divides through mitosis. ?

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10)

iPSc provided unlimited supplies of ________ cells could be used to generate transplants without the risk of immune rejection.?

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11)

In order to identify multi-potency stem cells, ones has to undergo cellar differentiation EXCLUDE?

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12)

Cells responsible for repair and regeneration consist of?

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13)

Transcription factors sometime is called ?

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14)

The ICM, inner cell mass, cells have the potential to generate any cell type of the body, after implantation, they are ————– as they differentiate to other cell types with more limited developmental potential. ?

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15)

A protein that binds to DNA and regulates gene expression by promoting or suppressing transcription?

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16)

Growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term cytokine.?

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17)

Embryonic stem cells were banned for basic research practice because it is an unethical practice. Moreover, it cannot create patient-match specific cell line.?

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18)

A protein that works with transcription factors to decrease the rate of gene transcription?

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19)

The disadvantage of mesenchymal stem cells is that this stem cells are heterogenous in nature which hard to purify.?

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20)

What are the 4 steps of responses of mucosa to damage?

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21)

The biggest concern of using iPSc as a regenerative tool is the possible of cancer provoke due to infection of transcription factors.?

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22)

Mesenchymal stem cells have been confirmed able to differentiated into neuron cell with function?

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23)

What is the hierarchy of induced pluripotent stem cells?

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24)

Mesenchymal stem cells is derived from bone marrow. So they can differentiate into hematopoietic cell line.?

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25)

Activation, or promotion – increase the rate of gene transcription?

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26)

Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos at a developmental stage before the time that implantation would normally occur in the uterus. Normally, it takes about 10 days.?

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27)

iPSCs were reprogrammed to an embryonic stem cell-like state by introducing genes important for maintaining the essential properties of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). ?

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28)

Four transcription factors (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc) sometimes is called Yamanaka’s factors.?

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29)

Growth factors are proteins that regulate many aspects of cellular function, including survival, proliferation, migration and differentiation.?

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30)

Yamanaka’s factors were used to generating iPSc in 1st generation because:?

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31)

Event during or following protein translation ?

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32)

A specific sequence of DNA that a transcription factor binds to?

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33)

Some important human diseases are caused by the death or dysfunction of one or a few cell types, e.g., insulin-producing cells in diabetes or dopaminergic neurons in Parkinson’s disease. Therefore, understanding and using stem cells as tool to study this disease model provide a better understand this dysfunction of cell types.?

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34)

Growth factor responsible for repair and regeneration: FGF, fibroblast growth factor.?

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35)

Why embryonic stem cells were banned for basic research?

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36)

What is Yamanaka’s factors?

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37)

Growth factors and their receptors can be grouped into ‘superfamilies,’ based upon shared features of ?

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38)

Mesenchymal stem cells can be extract from many types of tissue, but the most commence one is bone marrow.?

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39)

How many types of intra oral tissue?

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40)

ES will support clinical research on the differentiation and function of human tissues and provide material for testing that may improve the safety and efficacy of human drugs ?

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41)

What is the biggest conflict of using induced pluri-potent stem cells?

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42)

What is the hierarchy of embryonic stem cells?

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43)

Why transcription factor C-Myc is no longer use for generating iPSc?

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44)

A,growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation. Usually it is a protein or a steroid hormone.?

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45)

Retroviruses used to deliver the four transcription factors in the earliest studies is safe to generating iPSCs.?

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46)

What do Growth Factors Do?

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47)

All four factors are absolutely necessary. In particular, the gene c-Myc is known to promote tumor growth in some cases, which would not affect iPSC usefulness in transplantation therapies. ?

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48)

Repression, or suppression – decrease the rate of gene transcription?

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49)

Because ES cells can proliferate without limit and can contribute to any cell type, human ES cells offer an unprecedented access to tissues from the human body. ?

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50)

Growth factors and their receptors can be grouped into ‘families,’ based upon shared features of ?

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51)

Mesenchymal stem cells are multi-potent stem cells which is able to differentiate to adult cell like?

52 / 100

52)

When the first human iPSc were generated and published?

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53)

Periodontium which includes?

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54)

There are two major factors influence repair and regeneration?

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55)

What are the gold standard transcription factors using for generating iPSc?

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56)

iPSc were generated by:?

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57)

Growth factor responsible for repair and regeneration: EGF, Epithermal growth factor?

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58)

Upon introduction of reprogramming factors, cells begin to form colonies that resemble pluripotent stem cells, which can be isolated based on their:?

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59)

Transcription factor is a protein that controls the rate of transcription of genetic information from messenger RNA to DNA, by binding to a specific ribosomes.?

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60)

Why generation of iPSc is so attractive to scientist worldwide?

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61)

Growth factor is sometimes used interchangeably among scientists with the term transcription factors.?

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62)

Transcription factor sometimes is called sequence-specific DNA-binding factor.?

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63)

The process of making messenger RNA (mRNA) from a DNA template by RNA polymerase?

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64)

A growth factor is a naturally occurring substance capable of stimulating cellular growth, proliferation, healing, and cellular differentiation.?

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65)

Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) is a type of immunoprecipitation experimental technique used to investigate the interaction between?

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66)

Protein synthesis consist of 2 steps. What are they, and where do they take place?

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67)

Embryonic stem cells are derived from embryos at a developmental stage before the time that implantation would normally occur in?

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68)

How many protein structure were classified?

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69)

What is the outcome of regeneration?

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70)

Ethical issues associated with the production of ESCs do apply to iPSCs, which offer a controversial strategy to generate patient-specific stem cell lines.?

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71)

In the future, possible dentist can use dental pulp stem cells, 3rd mandibular molar, in cell bank due to their pluri-potent.?

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72)

Cre-Lox recombination is a site-specific recombinase technology, used to carry out deletions, insertions, translocations and inversions at specific sites?

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73)

Morphology of mesenchymal stem cells ?

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74)

Controlling the rate of gene transcription for example by helping or hindering RNA polymerase binding to DNA?

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75)

Work flow of generating iPSc?

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76)

Non-marrow origin mesenchymal stem cells EXCLUDE ?

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77)

Transcription factors is a protein that control the rate of transcription of genetic information from?

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78)

Growth factors typically act as signalling molecules between cells. Examples are cytokines and hormones that bind to specific receptors on the cytoplasm of their target cells.?

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79)

In transcription an mRNA chain is generated, with both strands of the DNA double helix in the genome as a template.?

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80)

A protein that works with transcription factors to increase the rate of gene transcription?

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81)

Transcription can be divided into 3 stages: initiation, elongation, and termination, each regulated by a large number of proteins such as transcription factors?

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82)

What is the outcome of repair?

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83)

The biggest different of outcome between repair and regeneration on tissue is tissue scaring.?

 

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84)

What are the criteria for achieving to generate iPSc?

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85)

Who are/ is the pioneer of generating iPSc?

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86)

In our blood, there is a small amount of stem cells which are ready to be differentiate to any cell type under the control of growth factors.?

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87)

The main reason for formation of scale is due to detraction of connective tissue.?

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88)

Growth factors and their receptors can be grouped into ‘families,’ based upon shared features of size and location, and into ‘superfamilies,’ based upon shared their functions.?

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89)

The process by which information from a gene is used in the synthesis of a functional gene product such as a protein?

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90)

The first differentiation event in humans occurs at approximately —— days of development, when an outer layer of cells committed to becoming part of the placenta (the trophectoderm) separates from the inner cell mass (ICM). ?

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91)

Growth factor responsible for repair and regeneration: PDGF, Platelet derived growth factor?

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92)

What is the hierarchy of mesenchymal stem cells?

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93)

What are the function of transcription factors?

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94)

Growth factor responsible for repair and regeneration: TGF-b, Transforming growth factor b.?

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95)

Cytokines are a broad and loose category of long big proteins (~5–20 kDa) that are important in cell signalling.?

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96)

Mesenchymal stem cells can be extracted from marrow and non-marrow.?

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97)

What is the biggest conflict of using mesenchymal stem cells?

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98)

Growth factor responsible for repair and regeneration: KGF, Keratinocyte growth factor?

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99)

Growth factor responsible for repair and regeneration: VEGF, Vascular endothelial growth factor?

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100)

When the first mouse iPSc were generated and published?

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